Primitive life, such as bacteria, reproduce asexually. But most animals and plants reproduce sexually so that offspring inherit genes from both parents. Even in plants, the mechanism for enabling the male gamete to join with the female gamete is engineered by the male reproductive part. There is competition between male gametes because only one fuses with the female gamete. This is essentially the definition of male and female in biology.
Single-sex organisms produce and fertilise their own eggs. The male is a later evolutionary development. Early single-sex organisms evolved a phallus. Then over eons, the development of the phallus varied according to the responsiveness of the individual. The evolution of the two sexes, male and female, involved more active individuals impregnating less active ones.
Those organisms that succeeded in penetrating another individual evolved into more proactive males. Those individuals who are willing to be impregnated evolve into more passive females. This is core to understanding that a person’s sex is related to their general metabolic rate. The more physically active are often more responsive. Orgasm involves a mindset that is intent on being the penetrator in sexual activity. This means psychological arousal relies on identifying with the male role in intercourse. This explains why female masturbation is so rare in the general population.
Responsiveness (the ability to respond to the point of orgasm) is part of male reproductive function. For reproduction to occur, a spermatozoa (from the man) must join with the egg (from the woman). This involves:
- A man having an erect penis (male arousal);
- A man being motivated to penetrate a vagina (male sex drive); and
- A man being motivated to thrust until ejaculation (male orgasm).
The female sexual role is much more passive due to a woman’s lack of responsiveness. Her role is based on conscious behaviours. She is able to choose a mate on more objective criteria such as whether he dedicated to her and willing to provide for her over decades while she raises children.
Heterosexual women’s sexuality involves:
- A motivation to make themselves attractive to men;
- A willingness to facilitate male orgasm through intercourse; and
- A longer-term desire for companionship and family.
None of these involve a woman’s arousal and orgasm. They depend on women’s conscious decisions. A woman selects a mate from the men who show an interest in her. She then keeps him devoted by offering regular intercourse. Women do not experience an arousal cycle except through masturbating. Women are not aroused by real-world erotic stimuli and only respond by using a mental focus on surreal fantasies during masturbation alone. Women focus on companionship and family especially over time.
Heterosexuality relies on the symbiotic relationship between men and women. Sexual differentiation involves more than the anatomy we are born with. There are differences in behaviour between the sexes even in very young children. Various chemicals, including hormones, control emotional and sexual response. The male and female brains respond very differently.
Male and female sexualities are not the same. They complement each other. A man’s reproductive role is to maximise his opportunities for intercourse. Women’s sexual role is to co-operate with the male desire for intercourse and to assist a man with obtaining his sexual release. Many erotic stimuli that men enjoy are repugnant to women. A woman’s reproductive focus is to establish a relationship that can support family life. Most men have little interest in the emotional stimuli that women enjoy.
The male sexual role is a proactive one that is driven by a man’s responsiveness over which he has no conscious control. A man must be aroused by his partner so that he can obtain the sexual release he needs. A man’s sexual role involves approaching women until one of them accepts him. Only a male is motivated to mate because he is aroused on seeing a female. Most men, especially when young, are regularly and reliable aroused. This arousal takes the form of a firm erection, which they are motivated to enjoy by obtaining penile stimulation. This is ideally done through intercourse but can also be effected through masturbation alone.
In the foetus, the genital tubercle grows into either a penis (male) or a clitoris (female). The clitoris has no role in reproduction and so does not respond with a lover. Everyone has a phallus but intercourse, which dominates our view of sexuality, involves a man inserting his phallus into a vagina. Female orgasm has no useful function. So it would be strange if it were common. This is why it was first discovered by researchers rather than being a well-known phenomenon in the population. Few women ever ask about orgasm, which is natural because you cannot miss what you have never known.
The average male … has a greater need than most females have for a regular and frequent sexual outlet. (Alfred Kinsey 1953)