Primitive life, such as bacteria, reproduce asexually. But most animals and plants reproduce sexually so that offspring inherit genes from both parents. Even in plants, the mechanism for enabling the male gamete to join with the female gamete is engineered by the male reproductive part. There is competition between male gametes because only one fuses with the female gamete. This is essentially the definition of male and female in biology.
Single-sex organisms produce and fertilise their own eggs. The male is a later evolutionary development. Early single-sex organisms evolved a phallus. Then over eons, the development of the phallus varied according to the responsiveness of the individual. The evolution of the two sexes, male and female, involved more active individuals impregnating less active ones.
Those organisms that succeeded in penetrating another individual evolved into more proactive males. Those individuals who were willing to be impregnated evolved into more passive females. This is fundamental to understanding that a person’s sex is related to their general metabolic rate. The more physically active are often more responsive. Orgasm involves a mindset that is intent on being the penetrator in sexual activity. This means psychological arousal relies on identifying with the male role in intercourse. This explains why female masturbation is so rare in the general population.
Responsiveness (the ability to respond to the point of orgasm) is part of male reproductive function. For reproduction to occur, a spermatozoa (from the man) must join with the egg (from the woman). This involves:
- A man having an erect penis (male arousal);
- A man being motivated to penetrate a vagina (male sex drive); and
- A man being motivated to thrust until ejaculation (male orgasm).
Heterosexuality relies on the symbiotic relationship between men and women. Sexual differentiation involves more than the anatomy we are born with. There are differences in behaviour between the sexes even in very young children. Various chemicals, including hormones, control emotional and sexual response. The male and female brains respond very differently.
Male and female sexualities are not the same. They complement each other. A man’s reproductive role is to maximise his opportunities for intercourse. Women’s sexual role is to cooperate with the male desire for intercourse and to assist a man with obtaining his sexual release. A woman’s focus is to establish an affectionate relationship that can support family life.
Even in male homosexual relationships, one man often assumes a dominant role as penetrator and the other a more submissive role as receiver. So gay men need to use behaviours before they pair up to indicate whether they are dominant or submissive. Fairly naturally a more dominant male is less sensitive to the needs of a partner. A more submissive male is more ready to accept bad behaviour from his partner because he obtains some emotional reassurance from his partner’s stronger drive and personality.
Men are autonomous and emotionally detached. Many men have a strong drive to take on challenges, to venture far from home and to strive for control through money or status. Men’s needs are easily satisfied through sex. Men have little interest in the emotional aspects of relationships (daily comfort, affection and companionship) that women value. A man is proactive because he is looking for sexual release. A man is obliged to approach women until he is accepted. A man is attracted to a woman by his genital response (sexual arousal) to her body, behaviour and personality.
Heterosexual women’s sexuality involves:
- A motivation to make themselves attractive to men;
- A willingness to facilitate male orgasm through intercourse; and
- A longer-term desire for companionship and family.
None of these involve a woman’s arousal and orgasm. They depend on women’s conscious decisions and sexual behaviours rather than responses. The female sexual role is much more passive due to a woman’s lack of responsiveness. Her role is based on conscious behaviours. She is able to choose a mate on more objective criteria such as whether he dedicated to her and willing to provide for her over decades while she raises children.
A woman must choose from those men who present themselves. She does not experience a genital response to seeing her lover’s body. Many erotic stimuli that men enjoy are repugnant to women. She is attracted to men who appear to care, who reassure her emotionally by their confident behaviour or who excite her in an intellectual sense with their personality. Women are strongly tied into their relationships, especially with their children. This makes negotiation with a man difficult. A woman cannot insist that a man demonstrates the caring behaviours she values and provides her with the affectionate companionship she hopes for.
The average male … has a greater need than most females have for a regular and frequent sexual outlet. (Alfred Kinsey 1953)